In the municipal and industrial Sludge treatment plants, the organic and inorganic particles are separated by sedimentation and the biodegradable substance are treated using biological technology, which helps in producing high grade quality of primary and secondary sludge. Sewage sludge in a plant contains less proportion of solid material with high water proportion. As a consequence a high volume of material must be managed to the final disposal with considerable costs.Sludge management is an important part of any modern municipal waste treatment plant .Nutrient of sludge need to be retained to make use of material and energy, and to dispose it efficiently and sustainably. The main objective of Sludge treatment isto dispose human and industrial waste without any danger to human health and damage to environment. Wastewater used in agriculture for irrigation is used as both disposal and utilization of wastewater. Still some treatment is provided to raw municipal wastewater before using it for landscape or agriculture use.
Municipal and Industrial wastewater undergo different treatment, the level of treatment are preliminary, primary, secondary, and tertiary and/or advanced wastewater treatment. Preliminary treatment includes screening which removes solid and grit removal which separates inorganic and heavy solids. Secondary wastewater treatment includes biological treatment which is used to remove the biodegradable material. Tertiary treatment is generally used for higher quality effluent as compared to secondary treatment. Sewage sludge is a product derived from wastewater treatment. Sludge thickening, stabilisation, sludgedewatering, sludge hygienisationand sludge drying are few practices used to treat sewage sludge. In sludge thickening the water content of sludge is reduced by increasing the dry solid content with low energy input. In stabilization the aim is to reduce the chemical and biological reaction to minimum. In sludge dewatering the dry solid sludge is increased using different equipment’s. Sludge hygienisation is a process to reduce the pathogenic bacteria content in sludge to a level which is accepted by authorities.Hygienisation depends upon sludge disposal method.
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The markets growth of countries which are heavily investing in wastewater and sludge treatment plants will see a rapid growth. These include china, Brazil and many other states who have joined hand with Europe.sludge treatment technology including dewatering, thickening and stabilization will be the biggest opportunity for investment. Challenge addressed by developed countries for sludge management in regards to lack of basic sanitation to approximately 3 billion people has become a key focus area in many developed countries. Continuous growth in developing economy resulted in improvement of human health and safety which will lead to increase in waste sludge that need to be treated.
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Increase in sludge production volume has driven the wastewater treatment industry to practice some innovative management scheme for sludge handling. the wastewater Sludge management cost contribute to 50 % of total running cost for wastewater treatment plant, optimizing the disposal and sludge treatment can lead to cost effectiveness. Increasing population globally resulted into increase in volume municipal sludge that has to be treated .the cost effectiveness of sludge management helps in increasing the market size and potential. Strict environmental policy for operator to for treatment of sludge produce by their existing wastewater treatment plant. Increasing energy cost from external energy sources and support for renewables are the drivers for increase in biogas production in waste treatment plant. Restriction on choice of surface and crop where sludge can be used act as a restraint.